Joachim Betz / Melanie Hanif

The Formation of Preferences in Two-level Games: An Analysis of India’s Domestic and Foreign Energy Policy

GIGA Working Paper, No. 142, July 2010

This paper examines the formation of India’s energy‐policy strategy as an act of doubleedged diplomacy. After developing an analytical framework based on the two‐level game approach to international relations (IR), it focuses on the domestic context of policy preference formation. India’s energy strategy is shaped by a shortage of energy and the scarcity of indigenous reserves; these problems have together resulted in a growing import dependence in order to sustain economic growth rates, outdated cross‐subsidies, overregulation, and nontransparent bureaucratic structures which are adverse to private investment. The Indian government still dominates the energy sector, but large electoral constituencies within the country exert a considerable indirect influence. The paper analyzes how all these domestic necessities combine with India’s general foreign policy goals and traditions to form an overall energy strategy. We finally discuss how this strategy plays out in a competitive international environment where global resources are shrinking (with most claims already distributed) and environmental concerns are on the rise.

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GIGA Authors

Prof. Dr. Joachim Betz is an associate at the GIGA Institute for Asian Studies and professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hamburg. His current research interests are climate and energy policies; political, social, and economic developments in South Asia; and international development policies.

Recent Publications by the Authors

Joachim Betz

India's Social Policies: Recent Changes for the Better and Their Causes

GIGA Working Paper, No. 314, January 2019

Daniel Neff / Joachim Betz

Gender Justice as an International Objective: India in the G20

GIGA Focus Asia, 03/2017

Joachim Betz / Daniel Neff

Social Policy Diffusion in South Asia

Journal of Asian Public Policy, 10, 2017, 1, 25-39

Joachim Betz

(Keine) Wege aus dem Energie- und Klimadilemma

Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 66, 2016, 12-13, 25-31