In the eyes of most contemporary witnesses, the collapse of the Soviet Union signaled the end of ideology. At least in the case of China, this was a hasty assumption. Over the past two decades, we have observed a reemphasis on party ideology in the People’s Republic. Ideology has again become a key resource for the legitimation of party-state power. The objective of the research project has been to analyze changes in party ideology and assess the implications for the legitimacy of party rule.